Meth/amphetamine and other stimulants

Stimulants are a group of drugs that produce stimulatory effects by increasing nerve transmission in the brain and body (Nielsen & Gisev 2017). Included in this group are:

  • Amphetamines used for therapeutic purposes to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but may also be used non-medically.
  • Methamphetamine (also referred to as methylamphetamine) – a potent derivative of amphetamine that is commonly found in 3 forms: powder (speed), base and its most potent form, crystalline (ice or crystal). Due to slight structural differences, methamphetamine produces a stronger nervous system response than amphetamine (ACIC 2019a).
  • 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)—commonly referred to as ‘ecstasy’— is an amphetamine derivative. (Note ecstasy may contain a range of other drugs and substances and may contain no MDMA at all).
  • Cocaine – produced from a naturally occurring alkaloid found in the coca plant.

The focus in this section is on the illicit use of meth/amphetamine and other stimulants (Box STIM1).

Box STIM1: Defining amphetamines and other stimulants

Data sources on methamphetamine, amphetamine and other psychostimulants contain a variety of terms; in some instances these terms cover similar, but not the same range of drugs. This can be confusing when interpreting results across different data sources.

Below is a description of each term used in these data sources and the types of drugs they encompass:

  • Amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS)—covers a large range of drugs, which includes amphetamine, methylamphetamine and phenethylamines (a class of drug that includes MDMA or ‘ecstasy’).
  • Amphetamines—refers to a broad category of substances. According to the Australian Standard Classification of Drugs of Concern (ASCDC) (ABS 2011), this includes amphetamine, methylamphetamine, dexamphetamine, amphetamine analogues and amphetamines not elsewhere classified. This is the term used in the Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Set (AODTS NMDS).
  • Methamphetamine (also methylamphetamine) also comes in different forms, including powder/pills (speed), crystal methylamphetamine (crystal meth or ice), a sticky paste (base), and a liquid form.
  • Meth/amphetamine includes methylamphetamine and amphetamine and is the term used in the National Drug Strategy Household Survey (NDSHS).
  • Ecstasy (also MDMA) is often consumed in the form of a tablet, but can also be in powder or crystal form.
  • Cocaine is commonly consumed in powder form, which can be snorted or dissolved in water so it can be injected.
  • Psychostimulants (also stimulants) includes ecstasy, methamphetamine, cocaine and new psychoactive substances (NPS). This is the sampling criteria for participants of the Ecstasy and related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS).

Availability

Methamphetamine and other stimulants are readily available in Australia. Findings from the 2019 Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) showed that the majority of people who inject drugs and use methamphetamine or cocaine report that it is ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to obtain (Peacock et al. 2019b) (Table S2.6). Similar findings from the 2019 Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) also show that the majority of people who use ecstasy and other stimulants report that methamphetamine, ecstasy and cocaine are ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to obtain (Peacock et al. 2019a).

Perceived availability was the highest for crystal methamphetamine (95% of IDRS and 94% of EDRS users rated it ‘easy or very easy’ to obtain), while perceived availability for other forms of methamphetamine was lower. Perceived availability of ecstasy in all forms has declined over the last 3 years, with the highest availability reported for capsules (92% of EDRS users rated it ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to obtain), followed by pill (81%), crystal (81%) and powder (76%) forms (Peacock et al. 2019b). Cocaine was rated ‘easy’ or ‘very easy’ to obtain by 62% of IDRS users and 70% of EDRS users (Peacock et al. 2019a; Peacock et al. 2019b).

In 2019, the main approach for arranging the purchase of illicit or non-prescribed drugs by EDRS users in the previous 12 months was via social networking applications (such as Facebook, WhatsApp, SnapChat, Grindr, Tinder) (43%), followed by face-to-face (34%) (Peacock et al. 2019a). In 2017–18, nearly a third of national illicit drug seizures (32.9%) and arrests (30.3%) were for ATS (including MDMA) (ACIC 2019a). The number of national ATS arrests in 2017–18 was 44,887, an increase of 173% from the 16,452 arrests reported in 2008–09 (ACIC 2019a; ACC 2010). The number of national ATS seizures has increased by 179% over the last decade, with 37,093 seizures in 2017–18, up from 13,300 in 2008–09. In 2017–18, ATS made up 36.6% of the total weight of illicit drugs seized nationally. The total weight of ATS seized nationally has also increased by 583% over the last decade, from 1,640.2 kilograms in 2008–09 to 11,205 kilograms in 2017–18, the second highest weight on record (ACIC 2019a; ACC 2010).

Methamphetamine is domestically produced, with considerable quantities of the drug also detected at the Australian border (ACC 2015). In 2017–18, there were 2,451 amphetamine-type stimulant (excluding MDMA) detections at the Australian border, weighing 2,952.4 kilograms. The 31,204 national amphetamines seizures in 2017–18 weighed 5,064.9 kilograms and accounted for 84.1% of the number and 45.2% of the weight of national ATS seizures this reporting period (ACIC 2019a). Recent research (ACIC 2019b) has shown the impact of seizures on consumption—see Supply reduction– Prohibited substances.

The number of MDMA (ecstasy) detections at the Australian border was 3,530 in 2017–18, while the weight of MDMA detections was 1,420.8 kilograms. The number of national MDMA seizures was 5,719 in 2017–18, and the total weight of MDMA seized nationally was 2,033.0 kilograms, accounting for 18.1% of all ATS seized nationally (ACIC 2019a).

Over the last decade, the number of cocaine detections at the Australian border increased by 664%, from 359 in 2008–09 to 2,741 in 2017–18. The weight of cocaine detected has also increased by 83%, from 506 kilograms in 2008–09 to 926.5 kilograms in 2017–18 (ACIC 2019a; ACC 2010).

The number of national cocaine seizures has increased by 319% over the last decade, from 1,217 in 2008–09 to 5,096 seizures in 2017–18. The total weight of cocaine seized nationally increased by 233% over the same period, from 591.9 kilograms in 2008–09 to 1,970.7 kilograms in 2017–18, the second highest weight on record (ACIC 2019a; ACC 2010). The number of national cocaine arrests has also increased by 410% over the past decade, from 848 in 2008–09 to a record 4,325 in 2017–18 (ACIC 2019a; ACC 2010).

Consumption

There are differences in trends and patterns of consumption in Australia according to the type of stimulant used.

Meth/amphetamine

  • 1.3% of people aged 14 and over in Australia reported using meth/amphetamine in the last 12 months (Figure STIM1).
  • 33% of regular ecstasy and other stimulant users reported use of any form of methamphetamine in the previous 6 months (Peacock et al. 2019b).
  • 78% of people who inject drugs reported use of any form of meth/amphetamine in the previous 6 months (Peacock et al. 2019b).

Self-reported data on meth/amphetamine consumption in the general Australian population has been declining since it peaked at 3.4% in 2001. There was a substantial decrease in the recent use of meth/amphetamine among people aged 20–29 (from 11.2% in 2001 to 2.4% in 2019), however, there were slight increases for people aged 40 and over (Table S2.44). It is possible that self-report surveys underestimate the true extent of meth/amphetamine use, particularly in the context of the stigmas that exist around its consumption (AIHW 2020b).

In 2013, ‘crystal/ice’ replaced powder as the main form of meth/amphetamine used in the previous 12 months. In 2019, this trend continued with 50% of people who used meth/amphetamine reporting that crystal/ice was the main form used in the previous 12 months (AIHW 2020b). While overall recent meth/amphetamine use declined between 2013 and 2019, the proportion using crystal/ice remained relatively stable (AIHW 2020b).

Surveys of regular ecstasy and other stimulant users also showed the use of crystal methamphetamine was relatively stable between 2013 and 2016. However, the use of crystal methamphetamine declined between 2016 and 2017 (from 19% to 13%). This was followed by an increase in 2018 (17%) and 2019 (18%), returning the proportion to levels similar to those reported in 2016 (Peacock et al. 2019a) (Table S2.49).

Figure STIM1 data visualisation

Visualisation not available for printing

Ecstasy

  • 3.0% of people aged 14 and over in Australia used ecstasy in the previous 12 months, a significant increase since 2016 (2.2%) (Figure STIM1).
  • A higher proportion of males than females reported recent ecstasy use in 2019 (3.9% compared with 2.0%).
  • The increase in recent ecstasy use since 2016 was largely driven by a significant increase reported for males (from 2.6% in 2016 to 3.9% in 2019). In particular, there were significant increases for males aged 20–29 (from 7.4% in 2016 to 12.1% in 2019) and 30–39 (from 3.2% in 2016 to 4.9%).
  • Between 2007 and 2016, recent use of ecstasy declined from a high of 3.5% in 2007 to 2.2% in 2016. However, in 2019 the proportion for the recent use of ecstasy had returned to the 2010 level (3.0%) (Table S2.46).
  • Ecstasy and cannabis were the most common reported drug of choice for participants of the EDRS who are regular ecstasy and other stimulant users (Peacock et al. 2019b).

There was a significant increase in lifetime use of ecstasy between 2016 (11.2%) and 2019 (12.5%). This was largely driven by significant increases for people aged 40–49 (from 14.8% to 19.4%) and 50 and over (2.4% to 3.2%) (Table S2.45).

Cocaine

  • 4.2% of people aged 14 and over in Australia used cocaine in the last 12 months, a significant increase since 2016 (2.5%).
  • Recent cocaine use in 2019 was higher in males (5.5%) than females (3.0%).
  • Recent cocaine use increased significantly between 2016 and 2019 across all age groups, except 14–19 year olds. The increase in recent use was largely driven by the significant increases reported for males, in particular for males aged 20–29 (from 7.3% to 14.4%) (Table S2.47).
  • In 2019, the proportion of people who reported recent use of cocaine was at the highest level reported since 2001—in 2019 it was 3 times higher than the level reported in 2001 (1.3% in 2001 compared with 4.2% in 2019 (Table S2.47) (AIHW 2020b).

There was a significant increase in lifetime use of cocaine between 2016 (9%) and 2019 (11.2%) (Table S2.31). This was driven largely by increases for people aged 20–29 (from 13.2% to 19.5%), 40–49 (from 12.0% to 15.3%) and 50 and older (3.4% to 4.3%) (AIHW 2020b).

For participants of the EDRS, cocaine was the third most commonly used stimulant drug (after ecstasy and cannabis) with 67% reporting recent use in 2019, the highest percentage of participants in the study’s history (Peacock et al. 2019a) (Table S2.49).

Recent data from the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program (NWDMP) show that:

  • methamphetamine remains the highest consumed illicit drug monitored by the program (for substances that have available dose data), with the estimated regional average consumption of methamphetamine continuing to exceed estimated capital city average consumption. From August to December 2019, average methamphetamine consumption increased in both regional and capital city areas, rising to its highest levels recorded by the program for capital city sites
  • in comparison with other illicit drugs monitored by the program, the estimated consumption of MDMA was low across the country. However, in December 2019, average consumption of MDMA in regional areas increased to its highest levels since the beginning of the program. Regional average consumption of MDMA continued to be higher than capital city average consumption, which remained relatively stable throughout 2019
  • the capital city average consumption of cocaine was higher than the regional average, though the magnitude of difference continued to decrease. In December 2019, average cocaine consumption for both regional and capital city sites increased to its highest levels recorded by the program. This continues a long-term trend of increasing cocaine consumption (ACIC 2020).

It is important to note that the NWDMP does not measure all drug types and cannabis (the drug found to have the highest self-reported level of recent consumption in the 2019 NDSHS) was not included in the comparison of the highest consumed drugs monitored by the program. For further information, see Box HARM2 and Data quality for the National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program.

Data from the 2019 NDSHS showed that:

  • There was a significant increase in the proportion of people aged 14 and over who reported recent use of meth/amphetamine in New South Wales between 2016 and 2019 (from 0.7% to 1.1%), while for South Australia, there was a significant decrease (from 1.9% to 1.0%) (Table S2.48).
  • Similar proportions of people living in Major cities, Inner regional and Remote and very remote areas recently used meth/amphetamine in 2019 (1.4%, 1.3% and 1.4%, respectively). A lower proportion (0.8%) of people living in Outer regional areas reported recent use of meth/amphetamine (Figure STIM2). These findings were still apparent after adjusting for differences in age (AIHW 2020b). Note, the estimate for Remote and very remote areas has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution.  
  • There was little variation in the recent use of meth/amphetamine for those living in the lowest socioeconomic areas compared with those living in the highest socioeconomic areas (1.4% and 1.5%, respectively) (Figure STIM2). This finding was still apparent after adjusting for differences in age (AIHW 2020b).
  • There were significant increases in the recent use of cocaine between 2016 and 2019 in New South Wales (from 3.4% to 5.0%), Victoria (from 2.5% to 5.2%) and Queensland (from 2.1% to 3.6%) (Table S2.48).
  • There were also significant increases in the recent use of ecstasy between 2016 and 2019 in New South Wales (from 1.9% to 3.1%) and Victoria (from 2.4% to 3.7%)  (Table S2.48).
  • Cocaine and ecstasy use were higher among those who lived in Major cities or the highest socioeconomic areas (Figure STIM2). These findings were still apparent after adjusting for differences in age (AIHW 2020b).

Figure STIM2 data visualisation

Visualisation not available for printing

Explore state and territory data on the use of methamphetamine and other stimulants in Australia.

International comparisons

The National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program (NWDMP) recently examined average stimulant consumption (amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, and MDMA) in Australia compared with 29 countries across Europe, North America, Oceania, and South Africa. In 2019:

  • Australia had the fourth highest average total stimulant consumption of all included countries at 59 doses per 1,000 people per day, following Czechia (76 doses), the United States of America (USA; 74 doses), and the Netherlands (66 doses)
  • Australia had the third highest average consumption of both methamphetamine (49 doses per 1,000 people per day, compared with 60 doses for the highest-ranked country, Czechia) and MDMA (3.1 doses, compared with 9.2 for the highest-ranked country, the Netherlands)
  • average cocaine consumption was lower in Australia than around half of all included countries at 6.6 doses, compared with 23 for the highest-ranked country (the Netherlands) and 0.63 for the lowest-ranked country (New Zealand).

When examining each drug type as a proportion of total combined stimulant consumption:

  • most stimulant consumption in Australia related to methamphetamine use, which is similar to New Zealand, South Africa, Czechia, and North America. By contrast, most European countries had higher use of amphetamine and cocaine
  • average consumption in Australia was proportionally higher for methamphetamine than MDMA, which is consistent with most other countries
  • cocaine consumption in Australia was proportionally higher than the use of MDMA. This was consistent with South Africa, North America, and most European countries, but was the opposite of New Zealand (where MDMA consumption was higher than cocaine) (ACIC 2020).

Harms

The short and long-term effects associated with the use of methamphetamine and other stimulants are provided in Table STIM1. 

Table STIM1: Short and long-term effects associated with the use of methamphetamine and other stimulants
Drug type Short-term effects Long-term effects

Methamphetamine (includes powder, base and crystal/ice)

  • Increased energy
  • Sense of euphoria and wellbeing
  • Increased attention and alertness
  • Increased talkativeness
  • Increased heart rate, breathing and body temperature
  • Decreased appetite
  • Jaw clenching and teeth grinding
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • A dry mouth
  • Changes in libido
  • Nervousness, anxiety and paranoia
  • Aggression and violence
  • Mood and anxiety disorders
  • Cardiovascular problems
  • Haemorrhagic stroke
  • Poor concentration and memory
  • Psychotic symptoms such as paranoia and hallucinations
  • Weight loss
  • Chest pains

Ecstasy/MDMA

  • Sense of euphoria and wellbeing
  • Feelings of intimacy with others
  • Confidence
  • Lack of inhibitions
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Increased blood pressure and pulse rate
  • Jaw clenching and teeth grinding
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Memory and cognitive impairment

Cocaine

  • Sense of euphoria and wellbeing
  • Increased blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature
  • Increased alertness and energy
  • Sexual arousal
  • Loss of appetite
  • Sleep disorders
  • Sexual problems such as impotence
  • Nose bleeds, sinusitis and damage to the nasal wall from snorting
  • Cardiovascular problems
  • Stroke
  • Paranoia, depression and anxiety
  • Cocaine-induced psychosis

Source: Adapted from ACIC 2019a; Darke, Kaye & Duflou 2017; NSW Ministry of Health 2017.

Burden of disease and injury

Amphetamine use was responsible for 0.6% of the total burden of disease and injuries in Australia in 2015 and 21% of the total burden due to illicit drug use (AIHW 2019b) (Table S2.69).

Of the burden due to amphetamine use, drug use disorder (excluding alcohol) contributed 28%, poisoning 5% and suicide and self-inflicted injuries 4.3%. Other contributors to the burden due to amphetamine use included road traffic injuries—motorcyclists (3.2%) and road traffic injuries—motor vehicle occupants (2.5%) (AIHW 2019b).

Cocaine use contributed 0.3% of the total burden of disease and injuries in 2015 and 11.4% of the total burden due to illicit drug use (Table S2.69). Of the burden due to cocaine use, suicide and self-inflicted injuries accounted for 6.2% and drug use disorder (excluding alcohol) 11% (AIHW 2019b).

Hospitalisations

According to information drawn from the National Hospital Morbidity Database, 7.6% of all drug-related hospital separations in 2017-18 were reported with a principal drug of methamphetamine. This is a notable increase from 3.1% of all drug-related hospital separations in 2013-14.

The rate of drug-related hospital separations for methamphetamines was higher for people usually residing in Major cities (41.1 per 100,000 population) compared with Regional and remote areas (31.8 per 100,000 population) (Table S1.8c).

Deaths

The number of drug-induced deaths related to methamphetamine and other stimulants (including amphetamines, methamphetamine, ecstasy/MDMA and caffeine) in Australia has increased at a fast rate, with the death rate in 2018 4 times higher than that in 1999 (1.7 deaths compared with 0.4 deaths per 100,000 population, respectively) (Table S1.1). Over the same period, the rate of drug-induced deaths involving cocaine increased from 0.1 deaths to 0.2 deaths per 100,000 population (Table S1.1).

The National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre (NDARC) reported that in 2018 there were 99 amphetamine-induced deaths in Australia—a rate of 0.4 per 100,000 people (Man et al. 2019). There were also fewer than 20 cocaine-induced deaths in Australia in 2018—consistent with previous years (Man et al. 2019).

Recent research examining methamphetamine-related deaths in isolation from other stimulants, found that mortality rates have almost doubled during a period of 7-years between 2009 and 2015. The most common manner of methamphetamine-related death was accidental drug toxicity; however, natural disease (e.g. coronary disease, stroke, kidney disease, and liver disease), suicide and accident comprised more than half of the deaths (Darke, Kaye & Duflou 2017).

Treatment

Amphetamines

Data from the AIHW Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment Services National Minimum Data Set (AODTS NMDS) for amphetamines correspond to the Australian Standard Classification of Drugs of Concern (ASCDC) code for the general ‘amphetamines’ classification, in which methamphetamine is a sub-classification. Specific coding for methamphetamine episodes have not previously been available due to the nature of the coding structure. This has improved over time, due to improved workforce training and new system updates (AIHW 2020a).

The AODTS NMDS showed that in 2018–19:

  • Amphetamines were a principal drug of concern for a client’s own drug use in 28% of closed treatment episodes, the second most common principal drug of concern behind alcohol (36%) (Figure STIM3).
  • Of the 28% of closed treatment episodes where amphetamines were reported as a principal drug of concern, two-thirds (66%) were for methamphetamines.
  • Client demographics where amphetamines were a principal drug of concern:
    •  Almost two-thirds of clients were male (65%) (Table S2.77) and about 1 in 6 clients were Indigenous (17.0%) (Table S2.78).
  • Source of referral for treatment:
    • The most common source of referral for treatment with amphetamines as the principal drug of concern was self/family (38% of treatment episodes), followed by health services (25%) and diversion (12.7%) (Table S2.79).
  • Treatment type:
    • The most common main treatment type with amphetamines as the principal drug of concern was counselling (41% of treatment episodes), followed by assessment only (22%) and support and case management only (10.4%) (Table S2.80).

Where the principal drug of concern was amphetamines, the proportion of people living in Regional and remote areas who travelled 1 hour or longer to treatment services was higher than in Major cities (31% compared with 10%) (AIHW 2019a). 

Figure STIM3: Snapshot of closed treatment episodes for own amphetamine use, 2018–19 (per cent)

Visualisation not available for printing

Ecstasy

  • Ecstasy was a principal drug of concern for a client’s own drug use in 0.6% of closed treatment episodes in 2018–19 (Table S2.76).
  • Client demographics where ecstasy was a principal drug of concern:
    • Almost 8 in 10 (79% of clients) were male (Table S2.77) and 4.9% were Indigenous (Table S2.78).
  • Source of referral for treatment:
    • In over half (58%) of treatment episodes where ecstasy was the principal drug of concern, the client’s source of referral was diversion (Table S2.80).
  • Treatment type:
    • The most common main treatment type for episodes where ecstasy was the principal drug of concern was information and education only (44%), followed by counselling (25%) and assessment only (16.8%) (Table S2.80).

Cocaine

  • Cocaine was a principal drug of concern for a client’s own drug use in 0.8% of closed treatment episodes in 2018–19 (Table S2.76).
  • Client demographics where cocaine was a principal drug of concern:
    • 88% of clients were male (Table S2.77) and 4.3% were Indigenous (Table S2.78).
  • Source of referral for treatment:
    • In almost 2 in 5 (38%) treatment episodes where cocaine was the principal drug of concern, the client’s source of referral was from self/family. Diversion was the source of referral in 25% of treatment episodes for cocaine (Table S2.79).
  • Treatment type:
    • The most common main treatment type where cocaine was the principal drug of concern was counselling (42% of episodes), followed by assessment only (22%) (AIHW 2020) (Table S2.80).

At-risk groups

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were more than 2 times as likely to report the recent use of meth/amphetamine than non-Indigenous Australians. However, the estimate for Indigenous Australians has a relative standard error of 25% to 50% and should be used with caution. See also: Illicit drugs in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People section.

More than half of police detainees and prison entrants recently used methamphetamine. See also: Illicit drugs in the People in contact with the criminal justice system section.

People with a mental health condition were more than 2 times as likely to report recent meth/amphetamine use than people who had not been diagnosed or treated for a mental health condition. See also: Illicit drugs in the People with mental health conditions section.

Methamphetamine is the most commonly injected drug in Australia. See also: Illicit drugs in the People who inject drugs section.

Policy context

Public perceptions and policy support

The NDSHS found that between 2016 and 2019, more people associated meth/amphetamine with a drug problem (46% compared with 49%) and thought it caused the most deaths (19.2% compared with 20%)(tables S2.36 and S2.70). Meth/amphetamine was reported to be the drug of most concern to the community by 2 in 5 (40%) people (Table S2.37).

National Ice Action Strategy 2015

In April 2015, the Australian Government established a National Ice Taskforce, to provide advice on the development of a National Ice Action Strategy (NIAS).

The objectives of the NIAS are to ensure that:

  • families and communities have better access to information, support and tools to help them to respond to ice (methamphetamine);
  • prevention messages are targeted at high-risk populations and accurate information about ice is more accessible;
  • early intervention and treatment services are better tailored to respond to ice and meet the needs of the populations they serve;
  • law enforcement efforts are better targeted to disrupt the supply of ice; and
  • better evidence is available to drive responses to the effects of ice in our community (DoH 2017).

Resources and further information

References

ACC (Australian Crime Commission) 2010. Illicit Drug Data Report 2008–09. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 7 August 2019.

ACC 2015. The Australian methylamphetamine market: the national picture. Canberra: ACC. Viewed 24 November 2017.

ACIC (Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission) 2019a. Illicit Drug Data Report 2017–18. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 7 August 2019.

ACIC 2019b. Methylamphetamine supply reduction—measures of effectiveness. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 14 October 2019.

ACIC 2020. National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program Report 10, 2020. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 30 June 2020.

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2019a. Alcohol and other drug use in regional and remote Australia: consumption, harms and access to treatment, 2016–17. Cat. no. HSE 212. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 March 2019.

AIHW 2019b. Australian burden of disease study: Impact and causes of illness and death in Australia 2015. Series no.19. BOD 22. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 13 June 2019.

AIHW 2019c. The health of Australia’s prisoners 2018. Cat. no. PHE 246. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 30 May 2018.

AIHW 2020a. Alcohol and other drug treatment services in Australia 2018–19. Cat. no. HSE 243. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 26 June 2020.

AIHW 2020b. National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019. Drug statistics series no. 32. Cat. no. PHE 270. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 16 July 2020.

Darke S, Kaye S & Duflou J 2017. Rates, characteristics and circumstances of methamphetamine-related death in Australia: a national 7-year study. Addiction 112: 2191-2201.

DoH (Department of Health) 2017. National ice action strategy. Canberra: DoH. Viewed 29 November 2017.

Man N, Chrzanowska A, Dobbins T, Degenhardt L & Peacock A 2019. Trends in drug-induced deaths in Australia, 1997-2018. Drug Trends Bulletin Series. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney. Viewed 8 January 2020.

Nielsen S & Gisev N 2017. Drug pharmacology and pharmacotherapy treatments. In Ritter, King and Lee (eds). Drug use in Australian society. 2nd edn. Oxford University Press.

NSW Ministry of Health 2017. A quick guide to drugs & alcohol, 3rd edn. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre UNSW.

Peacock A, Karlsson A, Uporova J, Gibbs D, Swanton R, Kelly G, Price O, Bruno R, Dietze P, Lenton S, Salom C, Degenhardt L, & Farrell, M 2019b. Australian Drug Trends 2019: Key findings from the National Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) Interviews. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre UNSW.

Peacock A, Uporova J, Karlsson A, Gibbs D, Swanton R, Kelly G, Price O, Bruno R, Dietze P, Lenton S, Degenhardt L & Farrell M 2019a. Australian Drug Trends 2019: Key findings from the National Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) Interviews. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre UNSW.

Voce A & Sullivan T 2019. Drug use monitoring in Australia: Drug use among police detainees, 2018. Statistical Reports no. 18. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. Viewed 8 January 2020.