Secure and affordable housing is fundamental to the wellbeing of Australians. Home ownership continues to be a widely held aspiration in Australia, as it affords owners with security of housing tenure and both long–term social and economic benefits (AIHW 2018). In recent times, there has been much public debate about the rate of home ownership and housing affordability. See Housing affordability and Housing assistance.

The data presented on this page does not cover the COVID-19 period since these data are unavailable. According to the 2016 Census of Population and Housing (Census), there were nearly 8.3 million households in Australia.

Where household tenure was known:

  • 67% (5.4 million households) were home owners:
    • 32% (2.6 million households) without a mortgage
    • 35% (2.9 million households) with a mortgage.
  • 32% (2.6 million households) were renters; where landlord type was known:
    • 26% (2.1 million households) were renting from private landlords
    • 3.7% (300,000 households) from state or territory housing authorities
    • 1.3% (105,500 households) from other landlords.
  • 1.0% (79,000 households) were other tenure, including households which are not an owner with or without a mortgage, or a renter (ABS 2017c).

Although Census data provides the most comprehensive view of housing tenure among Australian households, it is only conducted once every 5 years. To monitor changes in housing circumstance during non-Census periods, other survey data can be used. Survey of Income and Housing data shows that in the past 20 years to 2017–18, there has been a decline in the proportion of households owning their home without a mortgage, and increases in households with a mortgage and in private rental agreements (Figure 1).

This line graph shows that the proportion of owners without a mortgage declined from about 42% in 1994–95 to 30% in 2017–18. This line graph shows that the proportion of owners with a mortgage increased from about 30% in 1994–95 to 37% in 2017–18. This line graph shows that the proportion of renters renting from private landlords increased from about 18% in 1994–95 to 27% in 2017–18. This line graph shows that the proportion of renters renting from state or territory housing authorities declined slightly from about 6% in 1994–95 to 3% in 2017–18.

Trends in home ownership

Home ownership data from the 2016 Census show a home ownership rate of 67%, down slightly from 68% in 2011. While the home ownership rate remained around 67–70% from the mid-1960s, the rate for different age groups has varied markedly over this time. The rates among different age groups can be determined using the age of the Census household reference person. Specifically, the number of private dwellings by age of household reference person and tenure type can be used to calculate the proportion of homeowners of specific age groups from total households (excluding not stated).

The home ownership rate of 30–34 year olds was 64% in 1971, decreasing 14 percentage points to 50% in 2016, according to Census data. For Australians aged 25–29, the decrease was similar—50% in 1971, decreasing to 37% in 2016. Home ownership rates have also decreased among people nearing retirement. Since 1996, home ownership rates have gradually declined; rates for the 50–54 age group have seen a 6.6 percentage point fall over these 20 years (80% to 74%) (ABS 2017b).

To further illustrate these changes in home ownership rates, Census data can be presented by birth cohorts (Figure 2). The rate has fallen for each successive birth cohort since 1947–1951. Home ownership rates of Australians born during 1947–1951 increased from 54% in 1976 (when they were aged 25–29) to 82% 40 years later in 2016 (when they were aged 65–69). By contrast, the home ownership rate of those born during 1987–1991 was 37% in 2016 (when they were aged 25–29), 17 percentage points lower than the 1947–1951 cohort at the same age (ABS 2017b).

This line graph shows that the home ownership rates of those in the birth cohort 1947–51, who were 25–29 in 1971, increased from 54% in 1971 to 82% by 2016, or 40 years later when they were 65–69. Home ownership rates decreased in birth cohorts compared with the previous cohort at all age groups. In contrast to the 1947–51 cohort, the home ownership rate of those 25–29 years old in 2016 (the 1987–1991 birth cohort) was 37%, 17 percentage points lower than the 1947–1951 cohort at the same age.

Financial support for home buyers

Governments provide financial support to assist people to buy a house. The four main types of support available to home buyers are home purchase assistance, First Home Owner Grant scheme, First Home Super Saver Scheme and First Home Loan Deposit Scheme.

Home purchase assistance provides financial assistance, such as direct lending, concessional loans and mortgage relief, to eligible low-income households to improve their access to, and to maintain home ownership. Households may receive more than one type of home purchase assistance (AIHW 2021).

First Home Owner Grant Scheme, introduced nationally 1 July 2000, is funded by the state and territory governments and administered under their legislation. A one–off grant is payable to low–income first homeowners who apply and satisfy eligibility criteria.  Examples are that at least one applicant must be a permanent resident or Australian citizen, each applicant must be at least 18 years of age, and temporary residents do not qualify to receive the grant (Australian Government 2020).

The Indigenous Home Ownership Program facilitates home ownership for Indigenous Australians by providing access to affordable home loan finance. The program aims to address barriers to home ownership, such as loan affordability, low savings, impaired credit histories and limited experience with long-term loan commitments (IBA 2020).

First Home Super Saver Scheme, introduced by the Australian Government in the 2017–18 Federal Budget, supports first home buyers who meet the eligibility criteria to save money for a house deposit using their superannuation fund. They can voluntarily contribute up to $15,000 in any one financial year, and $50,000 in total under the scheme, from 1 July 2021. They receive the tax benefit of saving through their superannuation contribution arrangements (ATO 2021).

The First Home Loan Deposit Scheme (FHLDS) is an Australian Government initiative which has been designed to help first home buyers get into the property market sooner. Under the Scheme, eligible first home buyers can purchase a home with a deposit with as little as 5 per cent without the need to take out lenders mortgage insurance. On 8 May 2021, the Australian Government announced an extension to the FHLDS (New Homes) by 10,000 places for the 2021–21 financial year (NHFIC 2021).   

The Family Home Guarantee commenced on 1 July 2021, and will provide 10,000 guarantees over four financial years to eligible single parents with dependents. The guarantee will provide eligible parents the opportunity to either purchase a new home or build a new home, with only a 2 per cent deposit. However, this is conditional on their capacity to qualify for a home loan (NHFIC 2021).

HomeBuilder scheme was announced on 4 June 2020, with the aim of encouraging eligible owner-occupiers to build a new home or substantially renovate an existing home. The grant provided $25,000 to eligible contracts signed between 4 June 2020 and 21 December 2020. Eligible contracts signed between 1 January 2021 and 31 March 2021 were offered $15,000. On 17 April 2021, the construction commencement requirement was extended from six months to 18 months for all existing applicants (The Treasury 2021).

In 2019–20, around 43,300 instances of home purchase assistance were provided across Australia. Of these:

  • over one-quarter (27% or 11,500) of the main applicants receiving assistance were aged 35–44
  • about one-fifth (22%) of recipients earned a gross income of less than $700 per week ($36,400 per annum)
  • 58% (or 25,300) of households receiving home purchase assistance were in Major cities, 24% (10,500) in Inner regional areas and 13% (5,500) in Outer regional areas. Only a small proportion were in Remote (3% or 1,300) or Very remote (less than 3% or 1,200) areas (AIHW 2021).

The number of dwellings purchased by owner occupier first time home buyers—those likely to access First Home Owner Grant payments—increased, from around 82,500 dwellings in the 12 months to March 2016 to 155,100 in the 12 months to March 2021. This rise is further reflected in an increase in the proportion of all dwellings financed by owner occupier first home buyers—32% in May 2010 and 34% in March 2021 (ABS 2021a).

Trends in the private rental market

The proportion of households renting from private landlords has had a disproportionate impact on younger households over recent years, with a sharper increase in the proportion of young Australians renting compared with older Australians (Figure 3).

This vertical bar graph shows that the proportion of households in the private rental market has increased between 2006 and 2016. In 2016, 54% of households where the reference person was under 35 years old, 27% of households where the reference person was between 35 and 54 years old, and 11% of households where the reference person was 55 years old and over were in the private rental market.

What factors are influencing these changes over time?

Changing household demographics and population increases have influenced home ownership trends and a move from home ownership to renting privately. They have also influenced changes to the dwelling type needs of households (ABS 2017d; COAG 2018; Yates 2015).

Family and household composition

Family composition and marital status are related to housing tenure (Baxter & McDonald 2005; Stone et al. 2013). Over recent decades, the number of single-people households and single-parent households have increased and as a result, the average household size has decreased. These household types tend to have lower home ownership rates than other household types (Yates 2015). In 2017–18, 47% of single-parent households were renting, an increase from 42% in 2007–08. While changing household composition may be related to an increase in the proportion of people living in private rental dwellings, the percentage of couples with children who rented privately also increased from 20% to 24% during this 10-year period (ABS 2019; Warren & Qu 2020).

Population growth

Population increases in Australia are driving demand for housing, other services and infrastructure (COAG 2018). Brisbane (1.9%), Perth (1.8%) and Melbourne (1.6%) had the highest growth rates of the capital cities, in 2019–20 (ABS 2021b). Overseas migration has contributed to increased housing demand (Daley et al. 2018). Most immigrants move to major cities, leading to an increase in demand for housing in these areas. Melbourne and Sydney had the highest number of overseas migrants at 56,100 and 50,100, respectively (ABS 2021b). International students have also had an impact on the private rental market, predominantly in major cities (Parkinson et al. 2018). The subsequent pressure on housing stocks in these areas highlights the need for coordinated and well considered urban planning strategies.

Changes in dwelling types

The types of dwellings Australians live in has changed over time. The proportion of households occupying separate houses (see glossary) has decreased in the past 20 years, from 76% of all households in 1996 to 73% in 2016, offset by increases in semi-detached and townhouse households. In 2016, around 13% of households lived in semi–detached row or terrace and townhouses, up from 8% in 1996. A total of 13% of households lived in flats or apartments in both 1996 and 2016 (ABS 2001, 2017a).

Where do I go for more information?

For more information on home ownership and housing tenure, see:


ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 2001. 2001 Census Quick Stats. Viewed on 20 April 2021.

ABS 2017a. 2016 Census QuickStats. Viewed on 20 April 2021.

ABS 2017b. Census of Population and Housing, 1971 to 2016, customised report. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2017c. Census of Population and Housing: Community Profile, DataPack and TableBuilder Templates, Australia, 2016. Released 31 May 2017. Findings based on TableBuilder analysis. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2017d. Census of Population and Housing: Reflecting Australia—stories from the Census, 2016. Released 28 June 2017.  Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2019. Housing Occupancy and Costs. Canberra: ABS.

ABS 2021a. Lending Indicators, March 2021. Viewed on 21 May 2021.

ABS 2021b. Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2019–20. Released 30 March 2021.  Canberra: ABS.

AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2018. Housing Assistance in Australia 2018. Cat. no. HOU 296. Canberra: AIHW.

AIHW 2021. Housing Assistance in Australia. Cat. no. HOU 325. Canberra: AIHW.

ATO (Australian Tax Office) 2021. First home super saver scheme. Viewed 20 April 2021.

Australian Government 2020. First home Owner Grant Scheme. Viewed 20 April 2021.

Baxter J & McDonald P 2005. Why is the rate of home ownership falling in Australia? Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI) Research and Policy Bulletin issue no. 52. Melbourne: AHURI.

COAG (Council of Australian Governments) 2018. COAG meeting communiqué, 12 December 2018. Canberra: COAG. Viewed 14 December 2018.

Daley J, Coates B & Wiltshire T 2018. Housing Affordability: re–imagining the Australian Dream. Report no. 2018–04. Melbourne: Grattan Institute.

IBA (Indigenous Business Australia) 2020. Indigenous Business Australia Annual report 2019–20. Canberra: IBA.

NHFIC (National Housing Finance and Investment Corporation) 2021. First Home loan Deposit Scheme. Viewed 17 May 2021.

Parkinson S, James A & Kiu E 2018. Navigating a changing private rental sector: opportunities and challenges for low-income renters. 2018. AHURI final report no. 302. Melbourne: AHURI.

Stone W, Burke T, Hulse K & Ralston L 2013. Long-term private rental in a changing Australian private rental sector, AHURI final report no. 209. Melbourne: AHURI.

The Treasury 2021. Economic Response to the Coronavirus. HomeBuilder. Fact sheet. Viewed 17 May 2021.

Warren D & Qu L 2020. Housing. Australian Institute of Family Studies (AIFS). Families Then & Now: Housing. Research Report–July 2020. Melbourne: AIFS. Viewed 19 May 2021.

Yates J 2015. Trends in home ownership: causes, consequences and solutions. Home Ownership Submission 3. Sydney: University of Sydney.