'Chronic diseases and associated risk factors in Australia 2006' presents updated statistics on chronic diseases and their associated risk factors in Australia. Chronic diseases are conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes and arthritis (to name a few), that tend to be long-lasting and persistent in their symptoms or development. More than 15 million Australians are directly affected by at least one chronic disease. This report builds on the AIHW's 2001 report, and focuses on patterns of disease across the age groups, the prevalence of risk factors and their trends, the effects of chronic diseases on health services in Australia, and the differences in chronic diseases and their risk factors across geographical areas, socioeconomic status and Indigenous status. This report is a vital resource for policy makers, researchers and others interested in chronic diseases and their associated risk factors.