Chronic kidney disease has numerous impacts on both individual health and health services. With risk factors that are highly prevalent in Australia, including diabetes and high blood pressure, the number of Australians at risk of chronic kidney disease is increasing. Indigenous Australians in particular are at high risk. Chronic kidney disease may lead to serious illness and death. In severe cases, kidney function may deteriorate to the point where a kidney transplant or dialysis is required for survival. People with chronic kidney disease are also at risk of a range of complications, including cardiovascular disease. However, in many cases chronic kidney disease is preventable and treatable. This report is the first to bring together data from a variety of sources to highlight the impact of chronic kidney disease in Australia. The information within will be relevant to policy makers, the wider community and anyone with an interest in chronic kidney disease.