Arthritis and osteoporosis are among the world's leading causes of pain and disability, and impose a substantial burden on the Australian community. These highly prevalent conditions are major reasons for the use of health and allied health services, community assistance programs, and formal and informal care. Under the National Health Priority Area of arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions, national action is focused on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile arthritis and osteoporosis. This report brings together data and information from a wide variety of sources to provide a picture of arthritis and ostoeporosis in Australia, and highlight some of the main issues relating to these conditions. The report should be useful to policy makers, the broader community, and anyone with an interest in arthritis and osteoporosis.