'The National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-06: New South Wales' provides a detailed snapshot of oral health in NSW at the beginning of the twenty-fi rst century. It reports results from the 2004-06 National Survey of Adult Oral Health in which a random sample of adult Australians was interviewed and dentally examined. The report describes the levels of oral disease, perceived oral health and patterns of dental treatment for the NSW population and among sociodemographic subgroups of the population.The report includes a special focus on two factors that are significant determinants of oral health in the NSW population: dental insurance and government assistance for dental care. Dental insurance is investigated by comparing oral health of people who have private dental insurance with people who do not. Likewise, comparison is made between people who have a health care card or pensioner concession card and people who do not. The results identify groups in the NSW population most likely to be disadvantaged both in their experience of dental disease and access to dental care.