base case
A defined level for each variable (factor) included in the regression model, chosen as a point of reference for other categories within each factor. For example, in the factor housing program, the base case is PH. For more information see Identifying key factors within the Key factors associated with tenant satisfaction page.
Canadian National Occupancy Standard (CNOS)
A measure of the number of bedrooms a household needs to be appropriately accommodated. It is sensitive to both household size (number of people) and household composition (age, gender and couple relationships). The CNOS specifies that:
  • no more than 2 people shall share a bedroom
  • parents or couples may share a bedroom
  • children under 5, either of the same sex or opposite sex, may share a bedroom
  • children under 18 of the same sex may share a bedroom
  • a child aged 5–17 should not share a bedroom with a child under 5 of the opposite sex
  • single adults 18 and over and any unpaired children require a separate bedroom.
community housing (CH)
Housing that offers short, medium or long-term tenure for low‑income individuals and families, or those with particular needs not well catered for by the private market. CH is generally delivered by not-for-profit organisations and covered in the National Social Housing Survey in all states and territories except the Northern Territory. Currently, the CH program operates in all states and territories.
demographic profile
A term used to describe a demographic grouping or segment of the population. This can include age bands, gender, educational attainment and labour force status.
An amenity or piece of equipment provided in a home for a particular purpose. For the list of amenities examined in the 2023 NSHS see Supplementary table S3.1. See also working facility.
Describes times when the respondent had to live in emergency accommodation provided by a homelessness agency or had stayed temporarily with friends or relatives because they had nowhere to live, or had been totally without permanent shelter, or had lived in shelter unlawfully (such as squatting in derelict buildings).

Note: ‘homelessness’ can be defined in different ways for different purposes.)
Either a group of 2 or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling, and who make common provision for food or other living essentials; or a single person living alone who makes provision for their own food and other essentials.
household composition
The grouping of people living in a dwelling. In general, household composition is based on couple and parent–child relationships. In the NSHS, tenants are asked to select a category that best describes their household, based on:
  • whether they are a single person, couple or extended family, and
  • whether they are living with one or more children, or
  • whether they are a group of unrelated adults, or
  • some other situation.
Indigenous community housing (ICH)
Housing owned or managed by an Indigenous community housing organisation. These organisations may either directly manage the dwellings they own or sublease tenancy management services to the relevant state/territory housing authority or another organisation. This housing is made available to households with at least one Indigenous tenant. ICH is provided in all states and territories except the Australian Capital Territory.
Indigenous household
A household which contains one or more people who identify as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin.
A situation in a dwelling when one or more additional bedrooms are required to meet the Canadian National Occupancy Standard.
predicted probability
For any choice of factor values (base case or otherwise), each regression model developed for the 2023 NSHS estimates the chance that a tenant with the nominated characteristics would be satisfied with services from their housing provider. This chance of satisfaction is called the predicted probability.
public housing (PH)
The publicly owned or leased dwellings administered by state and territory governments (also referred to as public rental housing). PH aims to provide appropriate, affordable and accessible housing, mainly for low-income households who have difficulty in obtaining and maintaining housing in the private market.
reference group
A hypothetical group of tenants with all the base case characteristics combined. The group, along with its predicted probability of being satisfied, is used as a point of reference for regression analysis results. For more information see Identifying key factors within the Key factors associated with tenant satisfaction page.
regression analysis
A statistical technique that identifies significant relationships between variables (characteristics or factors) and an outcome, after simultaneously accounting for the confounding effects of other factors. The regression analysis used in this report identifies relationships between housing, demographic and geographic factors and tenant satisfaction.
Remoteness areas divide Australia into broad geographical regions that share common characteristics of remoteness for statistical purposes. There are 5 remoteness classes:
  • Major cities
  • Inner regional
  • Outer regional
  • Remote
  • Very remote.
Remoteness is based on relative access to services and is measured using the Accessibility and Remoteness Index of Australia (ABS 2018).
satisfaction rate
The percentage of tenants who were satisfied or very satisfied with services provided by their housing organisations, in relation to either overall housing services, day-to-day maintenance services or emergency maintenance services.
social housing
Rental housing that is funded or partly funded by government, and that is owned or managed by the government or a community organisation and let to eligible people. This housing includes:
state owned and managed Indigenous housing (SOMIH)
Housing that is administered by state governments and specifically targeted at households with at least one Indigenous member. SOMIH aims to provide appropriate, affordable and financially accessible housing for low- to moderate-income Indigenous households. As at 30 June 2023, SOMIH is provided in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and the Northern Territory.
structural problems
In this report, refers to problems in the home reported by respondents to the NSHS:
  • rising damp (moisture absorbed from the ground into walls or floors)
  • major cracks in walls/floors
  • sinking/moving foundations
  • sagging floors
  • walls/windows not square (out of alignment)
  • wood rot/termite damage
  • major electrical problems
  • major plumbing problems
  • major roof defect
  • other structural problems.
A situation where a dwelling contains 2 or more bedrooms that are surplus to the needs of the household occupying it, according to the Canadian National Occupancy Standard.
working facility
An amenity or piece of equipment provided in a home for a particular purpose, in correct working order.

See also Housing assistance – Glossary