Indigenous young people in Australia are much more likely to be neither studying nor participating in paid employment than their non-Indigenous peers. However, there is evidence that traineeships and apprenticeships can have a positive effect on employment outcomes and earnings. This paper provides an overview of the effectiveness of apprenticeships and traineeships for Indigenous young people in Australia. It looks at the data on participation rates, gender differences, occupation types, employment outcomes, and personal outcomes, and reviews the local and international research evidence on their impacts. The paper also discusses the gaps in the research and what is needed to support effective policy in this area.