Caution: Some people may find parts of this content confronting or distressing.
Please carefully consider your needs when reading the following information about suicide and self-harm. If this material raises concerns for you contact Lifeline on 13 11 14, or see other ways you can seek help.
The information included here places an emphasis on data, and as such, can appear to depersonalise the pain and loss behind the statistics. The AIHW acknowledges the individuals, families and communities affected by suicide each year in Australia.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander readers are advised that information relating to Indigenous suicide and self-harm is included.
The AIHW supports the use of the Mindframe guidelines on responsible, accurate and safe suicide and self-harm reporting. Please consider these guidelines when reporting on statistics on the monitoring of suicide and self-harm.
The AIHW National Mortality Database (NMD) contains records for deaths in Australia from 1964 to 2018. The database comprises information about causes of death and other characteristics of the person, such as sex, age at death, area of usual residence and Indigenous status.
The Cause of Death Unit Record Files are provided to the AIHW by the Registries of Births, Deaths and Marriages in each state and territory and the National Coronial Information System (managed by the Victorian Department of Justice). The cause of death data are compiled and coded by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) and maintained at the AIHW in the NMD. Registration of deaths is the responsibility of the Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages in each state and territory.
To improve the quality of data, the ABS annually revises the causes of death for coroner-referred deaths to reflect the latest available information. This process applies to deaths registered after 1 January 2006. Deaths registered in 2015 and earlier are based on the final version of cause of death data; deaths registered in 2016 are based on the revised version; and deaths registered in 2017 and 2018 are based on the preliminary version. Revised and preliminary versions are subject to further revision by the ABS. For a more detailed description of the coverage and processing of deaths data, including deaths certified by the coroner, refer to the Explanatory Notes in ABS Causes of death, Australia (ABS Catalogue No. 3303.0), which is available from the ABS website
In the NMD, both the year in which the death occurred and the year in which it was registered are provided. Year of registration has been used for the purposes of monitoring deaths by suicide. Deaths based on the year the death occurred have also been presented; however, as some deaths at the end of each calendar year may not be registered until the following year, year of death information for the latest available year (2018) is generally an underestimate of the actual number of deaths that occurred in that year.
The data quality statements underpinning the AIHW NMD can be found on the following ABS internet pages:
For more information on the AIHW NMD see National Mortality Database and About National Mortality Database.
The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status of a deceased person is captured through the death registration process; however, it is recognised that not all such deaths are captured through these processes, leading to under-identification. Also, data on deaths by suicide in Indigenous people have been compiled by jurisdiction of usual residence for New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory only. Data for Victoria, Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory have been excluded in line with national reporting guidelines.
Data for patients who were hospitalised with intentional self-harm injuries are sourced from the AIHW’s National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD). Most of the data used for the monitoring of hospitalisations for intentional self-harm are from 2008–09 to 2018–19. For each reference year, the NHMD includes all hospitalisations for patients who were discharged between 1 July and 30 June.
The NHMD is a compilation of episode-level records from admitted patient morbidity data collection systems in Australian hospitals. It is a comprehensive data set that has records for all episodes of admitted patient care from essentially all public and private hospitals in Australia.
The data supplied are based on the National Minimum Data Set (NMDS) for Admitted Patient Care and include administrative, demographic, clinical and length of stay data, as well as data on the diagnoses of the patients, the procedures they underwent in hospital and external causes of injury and poisoning.
The purpose of the NMDS for Admitted Patient Care is to collect information about care provided to admitted patients in Australian hospitals. The scope of the NMDS includes episodes of care for admitted patients in all public and private acute and psychiatric hospitals, free standing day hospital facilities, and alcohol and drug treatment centres in Australia. Hospitals operated by the Australian Defence Force, corrections authorities and in Australia’s off-shore territories are not in scope but may be included. Hospitals specialising in dental, ophthalmic aids and other specialised acute medical or surgical care are included.
episode of care: The period of admitted patient care between a formal or statistical admission and a formal or statistical separation, characterised by only one care type (see care type and separation). METeOR identifier: 268956.
separation: The process by which an episode of care for an admitted patient ceases. A separation may be formal or statistical. METeOR identifier: 327268.
formal separation: The administrative process by which a hospital records the cessation of treatment and/or care and/or accommodation of a patient.
statistical separation: The administrative process by which a hospital records the cessation of an episode of care for a patient within the one hospital stay.
The criteria used to describe intentional self-harm hospitalisations reported in Suicide & self-harm monitoring is described in the Codes and classifications section.
States and territories are primarily responsible for the quality of the data they provide. However, the AIHW undertakes extensive validations on receipt of data, checking for valid values, logical consistency and historical consistency. Where possible, data in individual data sets are checked with data from other data sets. Potential errors are queried with jurisdictions, and corrections and resubmissions may be made in response to these queries. Except as noted, the AIHW does not adjust data to account for possible data errors or missing or incorrect values.
The most recent Data quality statement for Admitted Patient Care is available in METeOR. The Data Quality Statement contains information on other changes that may affect interpretation of the data for the relevant year.
While the Indigenous status data in the Admitted Patient Care NMDS for all states and territories are considered of sufficient quality for statistical reporting, separations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are generally under-enumerated. In 2011–12, about 88% of Indigenous Australians were identified correctly in hospital admissions data, and the ‘true’ number of separations for Indigenous Australians was about 9% higher than reported. Caution should be used in the interpretation of Indigenous status data because of the under-enumeration overall and differences in under-enumeration among the states and territories. The quality of the data for private hospitals is not known, but likely to be poor.
The National Ambulance Surveillance System (NASS) is a new public health monitoring system providing timely and comprehensive data on intentional self-harm (including suicidal behaviours with self-injurious intent), mental health, and alcohol and drug harms in the community. Data for the National Ambulance Surveillance System (NASS) are compiled by Turning Point in partnership with Monash University and are sourced from paramedic electronic patient care records provided by Australian state and territory-based ambulance services. As part of the National Suicide and Self-harm Monitoring Project, the AIHW has contracted Turning Point through Monash University to develop the National Ambulance Surveillance System (NASS) for self-harm related attendances. Self-harm (suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-injury) related modules from the NASS are reported here.
The ambulance attendance data includes 1-month per quarter snapshots from New South Wales (NSW), Victoria (Vic), Tasmania (Tas) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) from 2018 to 2020.
Information is obtained and coded through manual scrutiny of de-identified electronic patient care records (ePCRs), including paramedic clinical assessment, patient self-report, information from third parties and other evidence at the scene, such as written statements of intent (including social media, text messages and written notes), as recorded by paramedics. Intent of self-harm behaviours derived from the ePCR may be from either stated or physical evidence, or where there is evidence but the patient may have denied the behavioural intent (Lubman et al. 2020).
Self-harm related ambulance attendances are included if self-harm occurred in the preceding (past 24 hours) or during the ambulance attendance, with 4 categories of self-harm related ambulance attendances defined and coded as:
Suicide, suicide attempt and suicidal ideation are considered mutually exclusive; however, self-injury could be simultaneously coded with any other self-harm case category.
The number of attendances related to suicide is under-represented as ambulances do not attend all deaths. Furthermore, when they do attend there may be insufficient information to determine suicidal intent at the scene.
Methods of suicide, suicide attempt or suicidal ideation are coded, as are methods of self-injury and categories of suicidal ideation preparation (planned, unplanned and unknown if planned) using a modified ICD-10 coding framework.
For more information see Lubman et al.2020.
Data are collected for operational rather than monitoring or research purposes with paramedics only recording information that they either observe or is provided to them by the patient or bystanders, and which they deem clinically relevant to patient care. It is possible that relevant information with respect to self-harm or mental health variables is not recorded, or similar events may not be recorded consistently by different paramedics over time.
The Multi-Agency Data Integration Project (MADIP) is a partnership among Australian Government agencies to develop a secure and enduring approach for combining information on healthcare, education, government payments, personal income tax, and demographics (including the Census) to create a comprehensive picture of Australia over time (ABS 2018).
In the ABS MADIP the 2011 Census and ABS death registrations for records where the underlying cause of death was determined to be death by suicide (ICD–10 X60–X84, Y87.0) from 2011 to 2017 have been integrated to the ABS Person Linkage Spine (Spine). The Spine is comprised of all persons in the Medicare Enrolments Database, Personal Income Tax or Social Security and Related Information data sets at any point between 2006 and 2016 (ABS 2019).
Using Spine IDs the ABS 2011 Census was linked to records of deaths by suicide at the person level to identify socioeconomic characteristics of people who have died by suicide. However, not all records were linked to the Spine. The linkage rates of 2011 Census and 2011–2017 records of deaths by suicide to the Spine is about 80.5% and 61.5%, respectively.
Data used in analysis:
To address the issue of unlinked deaths by suicide and 2011 Census records for this project, an imputation weighting technique has been used. This section describes the method used to develop these weights, which involved a three-staged approach.
First stage: imputing weights to scale up the Census population. The ABS historical ERP for 31 December 2011 by states, sex and 5-year age groups were used to derive weights by these demographic characteristics, based on the assumption that there were no significant differences in the age distribution of the population. The derived weight was applied at the person level for each record of Census that has Spine information to enable analysts to weight the analyses to the 31 December 2011 total ERP.
Unlike the original ABS research paper (ABS 2016) describing the creation of a linked data set between 2011 Census and deaths registered in the following 13 months, this project did not calculate weights for Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations as there is no analysis of deaths by suicide by Indigenous status. Also, note that Diplomatic personnel resident in Australia have not been excluded from total ERP.
Second stage: suicide weights were calculated by using all deaths by suicide from 2011 to 2017 by states and territories, sex and 5-year age groups. Suicide weights were then applied at person level to only those linked Census records with suicide information. This made it possible to weight the analyses to all deaths by suicide (18,848) from 2011–2017.
An issue with applying suicide weights is that suicide weights are slightly higher when compared with population weights applied in the first stage. As such, the combined weights of the linked records with both 2011 Census and suicide information when aggregated, the weighted ERP will be slightly higher than that of 31 December 2011. Hence the need for a scale down adjustment factor.
Third stage: Finally, a scale down adjustment factor, derived based on total ERP, linked deaths by suicide and all deaths by suicide, was applied at the person level to only Census records without linked death by suicide information. Hence the weights of the Census population with or without linked death by suicide information, aggregated to the 31 December 2011 ERP (22,340,025).
Australian residents in the 2011 Census, weighted to 31 December 2011 estimated resident population (ERP) and linked to ABS death registrations data from 2011 to 2017 created a binary outcome of either died by suicide (ICD 10 external cause codes X60–X84, Y87.0) or not. Note that deaths by suicide used in this analysis are based on year of occurrence. These may differ from deaths by suicide data used in other AIHW publications which are based on year of registration. Since this is a closed population, several assumptions have been made about the 2011 Census weighted to 31 December 2011 ERP (denominator population) including that everyone in the 2011 Census population lived up to 2017 except for those who died by suicide. Note that some residents would have died of other causes of death other than suicide. Also, it is assumed that there has not been any migration since 31 December 2011. In addition, due to data quality issues, except for those who have died by suicide, the age in this analysis is at the time of the 2011 Census.
Over the period 2011 to 2017, Australia recorded more than 18,800 deaths by suicide of people who were in the 2011 Census. This resulted in a cumulative incidence of about 84 per 100,000 people during the 7-year period. The cumulative number and incidence of deaths by suicide that occurred over the 7 years varies considerably by sex, educational attainment and labour force status.
All data are subject to some level of uncertainty. For the data presented in this body of work the sources of uncertainty include:
In addition to the NMD, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) suicide monitoring analysis used the following data sources:
The NDI is managed by the AIHW and contains person-level records of all deaths in Australia since 1980 obtained from the Registrars of Births, Deaths and Marriage in each state and territory. Its use is confined to data linkage studies approved by the AIHW Ethics Committee for health and medical research. NDI records are supplemented with cause of death information from the NMD (AIHW 2018). The NDI is used in linkage with the Personnel Management Key Solution (PMKeyS) and Defence Suicide Database (DSD) to create the linked PMKeyS–NDI data set used in analysis of deaths by suicide in the ADF population.
PMKeyS is a Defence staff and payroll management system that contains information on all people with ADF service on or after 1 January 2001 (when the system was introduced). This database contains demographic and service information at a given point in time and is linked to the NDI to identify deaths, including deaths by suicide, in the 3 ADF service status groups.
The DSD is maintained by Defence and contains information on suspected and confirmed deaths due to suicide of personnel serving full time since 1 January 2000. Suspected and confirmed deaths by suicide are included in the database only on the advice of the ADF Investigative Service. Cases are confirmed by receipt of a coronial finding of death by suicide. This database is linked to the PMKeyS and NDI and records with a status of ‘confirmed’ are used to supplement cause of death information from the NDI for numbers of deaths by suicide only.
For further information see Technical notes of the National suicide monitoring of serving and ex-serving Australian Defence Force personnel: 2019 update.
Estimates of fatal (years of life lost, YLL) and non-fatal burden (years lived with disability, YLD) were sourced from the Australian Burden of Disease Study (ABDS) 2015. The ABDS 2015 used burden of disease analysis to measure the impact of 216 diseases and injuries on the health of the Australian population. The study provides a detailed picture of the burden of disease and injury in the Australian population in 2003, 2011 and 2015. It also includes estimates of the contribution made by selected risk factors on the disease and injury burden in Australia, and by socioeconomic areas for some risk factors.
The ABDS 2015 uses and adapts the methods of global studies to produce estimates that are more relevant to the Australian health policy context. The chosen reference period (2015) reflects the data availability from key data sources (such as the National Health Survey, deaths data, hospital admissions data and various disease registers) at the time of analysis.
Results from the study provide an important resource for health policy formulation, health service planning and population health monitoring. The results provide a foundation for further assessments.
Full details on the various methods, data sources and standard inputs used in the ABDS 2015 are available in Australian Burden of Disease Study 2015: methods and supplementary material.
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