Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2016) Australia's health 2016, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 05 July 2022.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Australia's health 2016. Retrieved from https://pp.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016
Australia's health 2016. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 13 September 2016, https://pp.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia's health 2016 [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016 [cited 2022 Jul. 5]. Available from: https://pp.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2016, Australia's health 2016, viewed 5 July 2022, https://pp.aihw.gov.au/reports/australias-health/australias-health-2016
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This is a method of removing the influence of age when comparing populations with different age structures—either different populations at the same time or the same population at different times. For this report, the Australian estimated resident population as at 30 June 2001 has been used as the standard population. The same population was used for males and females to allow valid comparison of age-standardised rates between the sexes (see Table A1).
Two different methods of age-standardisation can be used: direct and indirect. Direct age-standardisation has been used in this report.
This is the most common method of age-standardisation, and is used in this report for prevalence, hospitalisations and most deaths data. This method is generally used when the populations under study are large and the age-specific rates are reliable. The calculation of direct age-standardised rates has 3 steps:
Step 1: Calculate the age-specific rate for each age group.
Step 2: Calculate the expected number of cases in each age group by multiplying the age-specific rate by the corresponding standard population for each age group.
Step 3: Sum the expected number of cases in each age group and divide this sum by the total of the standard population to give the age-standardised rate.
Source: ABS 2003.
Average annual rates of change or growth rates have been calculated as geometric rates:
Pn = value in later time period
Po = value in earlier time period
N = number of years between the two time periods.
The classification of deaths follows the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (WHO 1992). Diseases treated in hospitals are classified using the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision, Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM). The procedures performed during a hospital stay are classified using the Australian Classification of Health Interventions.
This report draws data from a range of administrative and survey data sets, all of which are subject to change. Such changes may arise from the:
Wherever possible, the latest version of a data set has been used; in cases where the data change frequently, the date of the release is noted in the text or table.
Note: Cause of Death Unit Record File data are provided to the AIHW by the Registries of Births, Deaths and Marriages and the National Coronial Information System (managed by the Victorian Department of Justice) and include cause of death coded by the ABS. The data are maintained by the AIHW in the National Mortality Database.
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 2003. Australian demographic statistics, September quarter 2002. ABS cat. no. 31010.0. Canberra: ABS.
WHO (World Health Organization) 1992. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. 10th revision, volumes 1 and 2. Geneva: WHO.
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