This report describes hospitalisations for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in Australia for the period 2004-2005. TBI, as distinct from head injury, is characterised by an external impact to the head that results in damage to the brain. TBI is defined in this report by the presence in hospital separation records of at least one ICD-10-AM code in the S06 intracranial injury range occurring in at least one of fifty available diagnosis fields. The 22,710 records meeting this criterion were analysed in three groups, according to the prominence of TBI in the record. Analysis and description of combinations of injury types resulting in TBI admissions to a hospital are reported, including discussion of severity of injury, and cost and burden on the systems for acute care and rehabilitation. About 980 (4.3% of cases) deaths in hospital were reported. Direct costs for hospital care for TBI separations were estimated to be more than $184 million.