Tobacco use is a major preventable contributor to the gap in life expectancy between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians. This resource sheet reviews the evidence on current anti-smoking interventions. It outlines what works, what doesn't, and what further research is needed. Topics include: smoking rates and life expectancy, why Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people smoke, health care interventions, community interventions, and legislative responses. To be effective, strategies to reduce tobacco use need to acknowledge the historical context for its use, as well as the many socioeconomic influences.