Over the age of 40 years, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have 6 times the rate of blindness of other Australians. 94% of vision loss in Indigenous Australians is preventable or treatable. The most common cause of blindness in Indigenous adults was cataract (32%). This paper summarises the findings of the 2008 National Indigenous Eye Health Survey (NIEHS). It reports the overall prevalence of blindness and vision impairment in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged 5 to 15 years and adults over the age of 40 years. The paper also presents some data from the National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit, Medicare, hospital data and case studies.