This resource sheet defines FASD and provides currently available estimates of their prevalence in the overall Australian population and in the Indigenous population. The current recommendation of the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) on the consumption of alcohol during pregnancy is also provided. Where appropriate, comparisons are made with other countries. The resource sheet reviews the Australian and international literature published since 1990 on the effectiveness of programs that aim to prevent FASD or to alleviate its effects. Evidence on the effectiveness of Australian and Indigenous specific programs is also assessed, including those programs that have been developed and implemented in partnership with Indigenous Australians.