The health of the Australian population improved markedly during the twentieth century. Despite these improvements, Australia at the beginning of the twenty-first century is characterised by significant health inequalities. 'Health inequalities in Australia: morbidity, health behaviours, risk factors and health service use' is a statistical reference that documents morbidity and morbidity-related inequalities by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage, equivalised household income, education and occupation among infants and children, young adults, working-aged adults and older persons for the periods 1989-90, 1995 and 2001. This report is the second in a series that focuses on different aspects of health inequalities in Australia. Other reports in the series examine health inequalities in mortality, and the measurement of socioeconomic position in population health.