Respiratory conditions affect the airways, including the lungs as well as the passages that transfer air from the mouth and nose into the lungs. They can be long lasting (chronic) or short term (acute) and can cause ill health, disability and death.
Chronic respiratory conditions can be grouped together in a variety of ways. One common grouping is obstructive lung diseases (diseases affecting the flow of air in and out of the lungs), such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis, versus other respiratory conditions, such as chronic sinusitis and occupational lung disease (occupational lung diseases are classified as restrictive lung diseases (Leader 2019)).
In 2018, respiratory conditions contributed 7.3% of total disease burden in Australia (AIHW 2021a).
In 2018–19, an estimated 3.3% ($4.5 billion) of total disease expenditure in the Australian health system was attributed to respiratory conditions (AIHW 2021b).
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways. People with asthma experience episodes of wheezing, breathlessness and chest tightness due to widespread narrowing of the airways.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by airflow limitation in the lungs, which can lead to mild or severe shortness of breath that is not fully reversible even with treatment. COPD is a serious long-term disease that mainly affects older people, and includes conditions such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
'Hay fever' is a term commonly used to describe allergic rhinitis when it is caused by seasonal exposure to pollen. Allergic rhinitis can also be caused by other exposures, and is one of the most common chronic respiratory conditions.
Bronchiectasis refers to an abnormal and irreversible widening of air passages in the lungs. People with bronchiectasis are prone to infections as mucus accumulates in the airways and becomes stagnant. It has a number of causes, including COPD, cystic fibrosis, low antibody levels and infections such as tuberculosis, whooping cough and measles.
Chronic sinusitis is the inflammation of the lining of one or more sinuses (large air cavities inside the face bones). It occurs when normal draining of the sinuses is obstructed by swelling, excessive mucus, or an abnormality in the structure of the sinuses. It can cause discomfort and pain and is often linked to similar inflammation inside the nose.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disease in which mucus from glands is thicker and stickier than normal, affecting the lungs and other organs. Difficulty in clearing mucus from the airway leads to chest infections and airflow obstruction, with related problems such as bronchiectasis and shortened life expectancy.
Occupational lung diseases result from breathing in harmful dusts or fumes, such as silica, asbestos and coal dust. This exposure typically occurs in the workplace. Pneumoconiosis, or scarring of the lung tissue caused by inhaled dust, is one of the most common forms of occupational lung disease.
Sleep apnoea is a condition that affects breathing while asleep. It reduces airflow which causes intermittent dips in the amount of oxygen in the blood and disturbs sleep. The individual with sleep apnoea is often unaware of the night-time breathing difficulties.
Pulmonary fibrosis is a scarring or thickening of the lungs. It affects the transfer of oxygen into the blood. Sometimes a cause can be identified for this but often the cause is not known. In this case it is described as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Leader D 2019. Obstructive vs. Restrictive Lung Diseases. New York: verywell health. Viewed 3 July 2019.
AIHW (2021a) Australian Burden of Disease Study: Impact and causes of illness and death in Australia 2018, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 15 March 2022.
AIHW (2021c) Disease expenditure in Australia 2018-19, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 15 March 2022.
Web report |
25 Aug 2020
Around 1 in 4 aged 15 and over with asthma had a written asthma action plan, based on 2017–18 self-reported survey data
In 2017–18, females aged 15 and over were 2.3 times more likely to be admitted to hospital for asthma than males
1 in 9 Australians had asthma in 2017–18 that had been diagnosed by a doctor or nurse based on self-reported survey data
COPD was the 5th leading cause of death in 2018
About 1 in 20 Australians aged 45 years and over had COPD in 2017–18, according to self-reported survey data
The prevalence of COPD was higher in the lowest socioeconomic area compared with that in the highest socioeconomic area
More reports and statistics on respiratory conditions can be found under Chronic disease.
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