Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2021) Crime and violence., AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 05 December 2021
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2021). Crime and violence. Retrieved from https://pp.aihw.gov.au/reports/children-youth/crime
Crime and violence. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 25 June 2021, https://pp.aihw.gov.au/reports/children-youth/crime
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Crime and violence [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2021 [cited 2021 Dec. 5]. Available from: https://pp.aihw.gov.au/reports/children-youth/crime
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2021, Crime and violence, viewed 5 December 2021, https://pp.aihw.gov.au/reports/children-youth/crime
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How many young people experience assault?
Young people can experience crime and violence as victims, witnesses or offenders. This can occur in their home or the wider community. For young people, exposure to crime and violence can have potentially damaging impacts that lead to a range of negative health, educational, social, emotional and behavioural, and housing outcomes across their lifespan (ANROWS 2018; WHO 2016a, 2016b, 2016c; Finkelhor et al. 2007a, 2007b; Mitchell et al. 2015; UNICEF 2007).
The negative impacts for victims can range from short-term physical impacts such as broken bones, through to serious and long-lasting emotional and psychological impacts (ANROWS 2018; Finkelhor et al. 2009; WHO 2016a, 2016c). For example, young people exposed to crime, especially violent crime or crime involving weapons, may have increased risk of:
Young people who offend are more likely to have diminished educational attainment and social participation, and interpersonal difficulties, and are at higher risk of future offending (Aizer & Doyle 2015; Gann et al. 2015; Hagell & Jeyarajah-Dent 2006).
Violence perpetrated by a family member or current or previous intimate partner is considered family and domestic violence. As children transition into adolescence and young adulthood, relationships outside the immediate family become more important, and the opportunity for intimate partner violence increases.
As there is no comprehensive national data source on children involved in crime, this section focuses mainly on selected administrative data sources, particularly police-recorded crime and hospitalisations for young people who have experienced assault (Box 1). These data source can provide some insights, but they do not capture all crime and are likely to underestimate the true extent of violence against young people.
In some instances, young people aged 15–17 who experience abuse or neglect have contact with state and territory child protection services, and there may be some overlap in recorded crime and child protection data. (see Young people in out-of-home care).
Data on crimes committed against or by people in Australia are drawn from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2019 Recorded Crime—Victims and 2018–19 Recorded Crime—Offenders collections. These data are based on those crimes reported to police in each state and territory and published according to the National Crime Recording Standard categories. ABS Recorded Crime data include offences classified to selected divisions and/or subdivisions of the Australian and New Zealand Standard Offence Classification (ANZSOC). As not all incidents of crime are reported to police, recorded crimes data are likely to underestimate the true rate of crime involving young people.
Recorded Crime—Victims data do not reflect unique people. If a person is the victim of multiple incidents recorded by police throughout the reference period, each unique incident is counted. Where incidents include multiple offences that fall under different ANZSOC offence categories, each different offence category is counted once per incident.
Conversely, Recorded Crime—Offenders data reflect a count of unique alleged offenders, irrespective of how many offences they may have committed within the same incident, or how many times police dealt with them during the reference period. Where an offender allegedly committed more than 1 offence, the principal offence during the reference period, defined as per the ABS National Offence Index, is recorded. It should be noted that alleged offences recorded in offenders’ statistics may be later withdrawn or not be substantiated.
Selected offences are defined as being related to family and domestic violence where the relationship of offender to victim, as stored on police recording systems, falls within a specified family or domestic relationship, or where a family domestic violence flag has been recorded, following a police investigation.
Data on young people who were hospitalised in Australia for an injury related to assault are from the AIHW National Hospital Morbidity Database. Hospitalised assault cases include episodes of admitted patient care that ended during the financial year (1 July 2018 to 30 June 2019) and that have an external cause of physical assault (X85–Y04) or sexual assault (Y05 Sexual assault by bodily force). Hospital morbidity data reflect unique hospitalisations, not unique people. These data represent a subset of young people receiving admitted patient care; others may access different services (for example, emergency department care and/or care from general practitioners). As well, some may not need or be able to seek medical help.
The ABS 2016 Personal Safety Survey (PSS) provides national data on the prevalence of violence experienced by women and men aged 18 and over. It collects information about the nature and extent of violence experienced since age 15. Violence refers to any incident involving the occurrence, attempt or threat of either physical or sexual assault. Where a person has experienced more than 1 type of violence, their experiences are counted separately for each type. The 2016 PSS collected in-depth information from around 15,600 women and 5,700 men aged 18 and over.
Data in this section on homicide are sourced from the Australian Institute of Criminology National Homicide Monitoring Program (1 July 2017 to 30 June 2018).
The 2016 PSS estimates that about 1 in 8 women (12% or 129,000) and 1 in 9 men (11% or 120,000) aged 18–24 experienced physical and/or sexual violence at least once in the 12 months before the survey. These proportions are higher than for any other age groups (ABS 2017).
According to the ABS 2019 Recorded Crime—Victims, there were around 13,900 sexual assault, kidnapping/abduction, robbery and blackmail/extortion offences against young people aged 15–24 (ABS 2020a). Sexual assault accounted for the majority of these (69% or around 9,600 cases). There were also around 28,800 other assault offences (which included grievous bodily harm, torture and use of a weapon perpetrated against young people aged 15–24) in the 6 jurisdictions for which data were available—New South Wales, Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory (ABS 2020a).
During 2019, police recorded 59 homicides (murders, manslaughters) and attempted murders for young people aged 15–24. Almost half (47%, or 28) were classified as murder—there were more than 4 times as many male victims as female victims (ABS 2020d).
As sexual assault and other assaults account for the majority of recorded crimes against young people aged 15–24, they will be the main focus here.
Sexual assault refers to any physical contact, or intent of contact, of a sexual nature directed toward another person where that person does not give consent, gives consent as a result of intimidation or deception, or consent is unable to be given because of youth, temporary/permanent (mental) incapacity or familial relationship (ABS 2020a). Sexual assault can be aggravated sexual assault or non‑aggravated sexual assault (ABS 2011).
Other assault is the direct infliction or threat of force, injury or violence where there is an apprehension that the threat could be enacted (ABS 2020a). Other assault comprises serious assault resulting in injury, serious assault not resulting in injury and common assault (ABS 2011).
According to ABS Recorded Crime—Victims, around 9,600 sexual assaults were recorded in 2019 as being perpetrated against young people aged 15–24 at the time of recording (ABS 2020a). This equates to a rate of 294 sexual assaults per 100,000 young people (Figure 1).
In 2019, recorded rates of sexual assault were:
Sources: ABS 2019, 2020a.
Data from the ABS Recorded Crime—Victims, 2019 are also available to report on other forms of assault for 6 states and territories (excluding Victoria and Queensland). In 2019, there were around 28,800 assault offences recorded against young people aged 15–24 for which data were available (see Box 1)—a rate of 1,674 assaults per 100,000 young people (ABS 2020a). The rate was higher for females (1,889 per 100,000) than for males (1,465 per 100,000) (ABS 2020a).
According to the ABS Recorded Crime—Victims data, for states and territories where the relationship between victim and offender was recorded (excluding Western Australia), in 2019, more sexual assaults against young people involved an offender who was known to the victim (71% or 6,100) than a stranger (18% or 1,600). Around 1 in 10 (11% or 914) involved an offender who was not specified (Figure 2) (ABS 2020d).
Note: ‘Other family member’ includes parents, siblings and other family members not elsewhere classified or further defined. ‘Partner’ comprises boyfriend/girlfriend, and ‘ex-partner’ comprises ex-boyfriend/girlfriends. ‘Non-family’ includes non-family relationships not classified elsewhere. Data exclude Western Australia, as data on relationship to offender are not available. Due to rounding, proportions in this figure may not add to 100%.
Source: ABS 2020d.
In Australia in 2019, around 1 in 4 (26% or 2,500) sexual assaults against young people were classified as family and domestic violence incidents due to the offender being a partner or other family member, and/or a police investigation concluded the incident was family and domestic violence. This represents a rate of 77 sexual assaults per 100,000 young people aged 15–24 (ABS 2020a). In 2019, family and domestic violence sexual assaults were:
Note: Includes Western Australia data only where family and domestic violence was determined based on police investigation.
Sources: ABS 2019, 2020a.
In 2019, for states and territories where assault data are reported and the relationship between victim and offender was recorded (excluding Victoria, Queensland and Western Australia) in the ABS Recorded Crime—Victims data, more assaults of young people aged 15–24 involved an offender who was known to the victim (68% or 15,200) than a stranger (26% or 5,900) (Figure 4) (ABS 2020d).
Note: ‘Other family member’ includes parents, siblings, and other family members not elsewhere classified or further defined. ‘Partner’ includes boyfriend/girlfriend and ‘ex-partner’ includes ex-boyfriend/girlfriends. ‘Non-family’ includes non-family relationships not classified elsewhere. Data exclude Western Australia, as data on relationship to offender are not available; also exclude Victoria and Queensland, as data for other assault are not published. Due to rounding, proportions in this figure may not add to 100%.
Source: ABS 2020d.
For states and territories where assault data are reported (excluding Victoria and Queensland), almost 1 in 2 (49% or 14,100) other assaults against young people were classified as family and domestic violence incidents, due to the offender’s being a partner or other family member, and/or a police investigation concluding that the incident was family and domestic violence. This represents a rate of 817 family and domestic violence assaults per 100,000 young people aged 15–24.
In 2019, family and domestic violence assaults against young people aged 15–24 years were:
Note: Excludes Victoria and Queensland as data for other assault are not published. Includes Western Australia only where family and domestic violence was determined based on police investigation.
Sources: ABS 2019, 2020a.
After remaining relatively stable between 2010 and 2015, the rate of police‑recorded sexual assault of young people aged 15–24 increased from 234 per 100,000 young people in 2015 to a peak of 299 per 100,000 in 2018 (ABS 2020a). It is unclear whether this change reflects an increased incidence of sexual assault, an increased propensity to report sexual assault to police, increased reporting of historical crimes or a combination of these factors. Further analysis of all 2019 police-recorded sexual assaults found that 73% were reported to police within one year (ABS 2021b).
Rates of police-recorded sexual assault for females were consistently higher than those for males for both age groups (Figure 6).
Sources: ABS 2020a, ABS 2019.
Time-series data for other assault are available for most states and territories (excluding for Victoria and Queensland) from 2016. The rate has fallen from 1,798 assaults per 100,000 young people aged 15–24 in 2016 to 1,674 assaults per 100,000 in 2019 (ABS 2016, 2020a). During this time, rates were consistently higher for females than males.
In 2018–19, there were 4,900 hospitalised assault cases of young people aged 15–24 due to assault—a rate of 153 cases per 100,000 young people. Physical assault was the most common form of assault and accounted for 91% of hospitalised cases. Maltreatment accounted for 7.9% and sexual assault for 1.4% of hospitalised cases for young people. (Note these numbers include only people formally admitted for a hospital stay; they do not include those who presented to an Emergency Department only).
Rates of hospitalised assault cases varied for different demographic groups:
The rate of hospitalised assault cases for young people aged 15–24 declined steadily from 273 per 100,000 young people in 2008–09 to 149 per 100,000 in 2014–15, before increasing to 159 per 100,000 in 2016–17 (AIHW 2021).
In 2018–19, the most common assault types requiring hospitalisation of the total hospitalised assault cases were assault by:
The proportion of assaults by sharp objects was higher for males (14%) than for females (7.5%), while the proportion of assaults by blunt object was higher for females (12%) than males (10%).
In 2018–19, 25% (1,200) of assault hospitalisations for young people aged 15–24 were related to family and domestic violence. Of these:
Around 6 in 10 (61%, or 3,000) assault hospitalisations involved a perpetrator who was unknown or unspecified.
For information on unintentional injury hospitalised cases, see Unintentional injuries.
In 2017–18, for states and territories where data were available (excludes the Australian Capital Territory), the Australian Institute of Criminology’s (AIC’s) National Homicide Monitoring Program (NHMP) reported 25 deaths due to homicide among young people aged 15–24. This represents a rate of 0.8 homicides per 100,000 young people. For young people aged 15–24, the rate of homicide was:
Data from the ABS Recorded Crime—Offenders are available to report on young people as perpetrators of crime. In 2018–19, police proceeded against around 124,000 young people aged 15–24 for 1 or more criminal offence. This represents a rate of 3,800 offenders per 100,000 young people.
Of these offenders, three-quarters (75% or 93,200) were male. The offender rate was higher among those 15–19 (4,000 per 100,000) than among those aged 20–24 (3,600 per 100,000) (ABS 2020b). The offender rate was lower than both youth age groups for those aged 25–29 (3,000 per 100,000) and continued to progressively decrease with increasing age.
The most common principal offences committed by young people aged 15–24 include both violent and non-violent crimes. Illicit drug offences were the most common principal offence (805 offenders per 100,000 young people), followed by acts intended to cause injury (650 offenders per 100,000) and public order offences (610 per 100,000) (Figure 7) (ABS 2020b).
Sources: ABS 2020e. ABS 2019.
In 2019–20, the number of youth offenders aged 10–17 was around 47,000, a rate of 1,914 offenders per 100,000, the lowest rate since the time series began in 2008–09 (3,187 per 100,000) (ABS 2021a).
In 2017–18, the AIC NHMP identified 40 youth homicide offenders aged 15–24 in Australia (excluding the Australian Capital Territory)—a rate of 1.3 homicide offenders per 100,000 young people. This offender rate is lower than for people aged 25–34 (2.0 per 100,000) and 35–44 (1.7 per 100,000), but higher than all other age groups. The majority (80%) of youth homicide offenders were male (Bricknell 2020).
Data from the ABS Recorded Crime—Offenders, 2018–19 are also available to report on young people as offenders of offences related to family and domestic violence. These data are available for all states and territories except South Australia.
In 2018–19, there were 14,500 offenders of offences related to family and domestic violence aged 15–24 in Australia (excluding data for South Australia, as they were unavailable). Of these offenders, the majority (77%, or 11,200) were male. Correspondingly, males aged 15–24 had higher domestic violence offender rates than females—722 and 224 per 100,000, respectively. The most common principal offence related to family and domestic violence was ‘Acts intended to cause injury’ (61%) (ABS 2020c).
In 2018–19, young people aged 15–24 accounted for 30 offenders of offences related to family and domestic homicide and related offences.
Following police charges, young people may become a defendant in 1 or more criminal court case. There are separate justice systems for young people aged 10–17 and those aged 18 and over, with those aged under 18 usually dealt with under the youth justice system. Young people under youth justice supervision in Australia because of their involvement (or alleged involvement) in crime are included in annual Youth justice in Australia reports.
For information on topics related to family, domestic and sexual violence in Australia’s young people, see:
For information on young people and crime, see:
For information on youth justice, see Youth Justice in Australia 2018–19.
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 2011. Measuring victims of crime: a guide to using administrative and survey data. ABS cat. no. 4500.0.55.001. Canberra: ABS. Viewed 24 August 2020.
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ABS 2017. Personal safety, Australia, 2016. ABS cat. no. 4906.0. Canberra: ABS.
ABS 2019. Australian demographic statistics, Jun 2019. ABS cat. no. 3101. Canberra: ABS. Viewed 23 February 2021.
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ABS 2020c. Recorded Crime—Offenders, 2018–19. Customised report. Canberra: ABS.
ABS 2020d. Recorded Crime—Victims, 2019. Customised report. Canberra: ABS.
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Aizer A & Doyle J 2015. Juvenile incarceration, human capital and future crime: evidence from randomly-assigned judges. Quarterly Journal of Economics 130(2):759–803.
ANROWS (Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety) 2018. Research summary: the impacts of domestic and family violence on children. Sydney: ANROWS. Viewed 21 August 2020.
Bland D & Shallcross L 2015. Children who are homeless with their family: a literature review for the Queensland Commissioner for Children and Young People. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology, Children and Youth Resource Centre. Viewed 24 August 2020.
Bricknell S 2020. Homicide in Australia 2017–18: National Homicide Monitoring Program report. Australian Institute of Criminology (AIC) statistical reports. Canberra: AIC. Viewed 9 October 2020.
Campo M 2015. Children’s exposure to domestic and family violence: key issues and responses. Child Family Community Australia (CFCA) paper no. 36. Melbourne: CFCA information exchange, Australian Institute of Family Studies. Viewed 24 August 2020.
Finkelhor D, Ormrod RK & Turner HA 2007a. Polyvictimization: a neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse and Neglect 31(1):7–26.
Finkelhor D, Ormrod RK & Turner HA 2007b. Polyvictimization and trauma in a national longitudinal cohort. Development Psychopathology 19(1):149–166.
Finkelhor D, Turner H, Ormrod R & Hamby S 2009. Violence, abuse and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth. Paediatrics 124:1411–23.
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Hagell A & Jeyarajah-Dent R (eds) 2006. Children who commit acts of serious interpersonal violence: messages for best practice. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Holt S, Buckley H & Whelan S 2008. The impact of exposure to domestic violence on children and young people: a review of the literature. Child Abuse and Neglect 32:797–810.
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Schiff M, Plotnikova M, Dingle K, Williams G, Najman J & Clavarino A 2014. Does adolescent’s exposure to parental intimate partner conflict and violence predict psychological distress and substance use in young adulthood? A longitudinal study. Child Abuse and Neglect 38:1945–54.
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WHO (World Health Organization) 2016a. INSPIRE: seven strategies for ending violence against children. Geneva: World Health Organization. Viewed 9 October 2020.
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The change in NSW’s emergency department admission policy may have had different effects on case numbers within different external cause categories. This is because different types of injury have a different likelihood of requiring prolonged care in an emergency department, but without an admission to a hospital ward.
Consequently, fewer injury separations are reported than would have been seen had the NSW policy not changed, for most analyses.
Due to the size of the contribution of NSW data to the national total, Australian data from 2017-18 should therefore not be compared with data from previous years.
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